Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Reading and the Brain

Hi everyone! This post has been a LONG time coming. By long time, I mean like 2 years. This post contains information from several places. I've included a list at the end of this post. 

This post is part of a series that I'm doing about dyslexia. Make sure you check out my last post about the myths of dyslexia. This post doesn't quite dive into dyslexia, but it sure does set the stage! This post is all about how our brain reads. I find this all SO fascinating! Before i go any further, I have to say a little disclaimer: I am not  a brain scientist. I do not have a PHD or anything like that. This comes from the past 4 years of reading articles and books, taking online classes and other pd workshops on the topic. I am slightly obsessed with the topic of dyslexia, but I don't feel like I can call myself an expert. I do feel like it is SO important to share the knowledge that I do have. After reading these posts (especially the next post after this one,)  I encourage you to keep learning and start making adjustments to your teaching so you can meet the needs of students with dyslexia (which happen to be 1 in 5.) I'm STILL making these adjustments, learning, and trying to meet the needs of these students. It's not easy, but I feel like it's so important to at least get this dialogue started (or continue it if you've already started) so we can make positive changes together. Okay, my little speech is over and now to the good stuff! :)

Since this blog post is SO long and has so much information, I've made a little "key" to help organize all this. 

I think it's best to start with this little fact:

The first time I heard this was from a presentation a few years ago from Dr. Louisa Moats. It totally woke me up!I had never really realized this little fact. 

When we speak and listen, we don't need to break apart the individual phonemes that make up words. In fact, we aren't really aware of them at first. We say words as bigger parts. When we learn to read and write, we must first figure out that all of our words are made up of smaller phonemes, or sounds. Instead of hearing and saying a word as a whole, we must break it apart into much smaller sounds. We rely on our language modules in our brains to convert this print into the linguistic code (phonetic code) we have created. We can't do this until we have that ability to break apart words into their individual phonemes. "70-80% of American children learn how to transform printed symbols into a phonetic code without much difficulty." (Shaywitz, 2003) Think about that. Are you thinking about the remaining 20%?

I've seen this Scarborough rope in every presentation I've been to. It's that good! Basically, it's showing you what it takes to be a truly "skilled" readers. Many of our dyslexic students have the language compression, but the skills involved in the word recognition part is a roadblock. For this post, we will be focusing on that bottom part of this "rope."

This is the same information, just another way to look at it:

Since reading skills are tied to these language skills, it is important to look at all of them. I will come back to this slide later, when I talk more about reading instruction. 

Before we jump to the brain, let's look a little more at the skills involved in the learning to read. 

The first part of this picture shows the bottom part of Scarborough's rope.   The last one (meaning) is the top part of the rope.

Breaking it down, here is how the average child learns to read.

Phonological awareness comes easier to some kids than others. Many children develop it without any real instruction by the time they need to learn to read. Others need a little boost in the form of fun nursery rhymes, games that play with words, and minimal instruction. Still, there are many (20%ish) who need intensive instruction with phonemic awareness before beginning to learn to read.   

To read more about phonological awareness, click HERE.

This is the idea that those lines and circles actually carry meaning when they are linked together.  Words are made up of letters and letters represent sounds.

This process is faster for some and slower for others. For many children, it is incredible difficult. 

After students are able to decode words, they can start committing them to memory. The average reader needs to see a word 4-14 times before they can read it with automaticity. (Dyslexic readers need to see it 40+ times!) The more a reader is exposed to texts, the quicker they are committing these words to memory.  You will see below where in the brain this happens. (To see a post about how to teach sight words, click HERE.)

I don't go into comprehension in this post very much, but obviously that is the end goal. It's the whole reason why we teach phonics and sight words. Phonemic awareness and alphabetic principal leads to breaking the phonetic code which leads to automatic word retrieval which leads to fluency which allows the reader to truly gain access to the text and, hopefully, read for meaning. Of course there are those students who can word call like crazy but can't comprehend. That's because that skill happens as a result of activation in a different part of the brain. I will be doing another blog post about compression and those higher order language skills necessary for full comprehension to happen.

Now, onto what is happening in our brains when we are reading. Above is the process that we can see. As teachers, we see this happening every year with our students. They start out sounding out words, and as they year goes on, they become more and more fluent. By the end of first grade, most kids are reading 40-60 words/minute. So, how does this happen? Why do some kids still struggle after loads of practice and quality instruction? The answers are all there, thanks to fMRI's (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.) Scientists can now literally see what is happening in our brains when we read and what is happening in the brains of struggling readers.  I'm going to try to break it down as best I can. Keep in mind, I'm a super slow learner. Ha! I also have no background in brain anything.

Brain clip art: copyright Away With The Pixels 

Remember when I mentioned that reading is not a natural skill that we are born to do? There are no parts of the brain that are innately dedicated to learning to read. Instead there are parts of the brain that are used for spoken language and object recognition, which we use for reading. (Dehaene &Cohen, 2007)

Through fMRI's, scientists have found that there are three main brain systems that are active while reading.

This information is from Sally Shaywitz book: Overcoming Dyslexia

Two of these pathways for reading are in the posterior system (back of the brain.) 

Think about our beginning readers. They are relying on this because they have not had enough exposure to automatically identify every word. (You'll learn more about this in a sec.) Our new readers need multiple opportunities to practice this skill. 
To to do this, they need to :
  1. Know the letters and the sounds they represent with automaticity. If they don't have these sounds down, it will slow them down with this process. Simply knowing the letters isn't enough. We need to give students plenty of practice to master this skill and develop automaticity. 
  2. Have phonemic awareness (they must be able to pull those sounds apart and blend the individual sounds together with relative ease.) 

This is the part of the brain that we hope is getting busy as our students finish first grade and entering second grade, right?! There are two things that pop in my head when I read over this. 1) It does start with phonics and repetitive exposures to sounding out those words DOES usually lead to eventually recognizing the word with automaticity later. Phonics is a tool to getting to that goal of automaticity. 2) Some words are more difficult to sound out- sight words. These words, along with other high-frequency words, need to be practiced often so we can get them into their word form area and build that "exact model" to be retrieved quickly and effortlessly.

I recently went to an excellent teacher training by PDX Reading Specialist, Barbara Steinberg. She pointed out that our brains can only hold so many words to be memorized. So what we are actually doing is memorizing word parts more often. These parts are what we retrieve so quickly and link together to make more words.

The third pathway is in the front of the brain in the Broca's area. Remember from above, that the frontal system is responsible for phonological processing and semantic processing (word analysis). (Willis, 2008)

This part of the brain helps a person vocalize words and start to analyzes phonemes.

With dyslexics, there is a neurobiological reason for why they struggle with reading. My next blog post is all about how a dyslexic brain reads. Here's a hint- there are different levels of activation in various parts of the brain that I've mentioned. Stay tuned!

Language Processes of Skilled Readers 

This brings us back to the yellow slides. ;) When these brain systems all work together, it seems like reading is seamless. Let's review the types of language processing that needs to occur to be a skilled reader. These are the major components of the structure of our language:

These pieces all work together to create meaningful communication (whether it be oral or written.)

We all know how important this is! I've had students who seem to have great phonemic awareness but they cannot remember a word! They sound out words every time.

If a student has weak orthography processing, they can't make a mental picture in their brain. They must rely completely on phonics instead of reading by sight. This leads to choppy reading.  

I will be doing another blog post on morphology. I'm learning about how important it is for our students to know and understand affixes. 

This slide above is to help with all the vocab I'm throwing at you...

These next slides show the higher level language skills. It's important to start focusing on these even with our beginning readers. The frontal lobe is responsible for comprehension. Have you ever had a student that is a slow reader and bad speller BUT has awesome comprehension. Here's why: The frontal systems are working like crazy. They are bright kids and they get it. Their brains are just not using the same pathways that would make their reading fluent. This is why we want to make sure that, although our remedial instruction is at their reading level, they are still exposed to TONS of literature at their intellectual level. Read-alouds and audio books are great for this. Have you ever had a struggling reader who is the first one to raise his/her hand with a thoughtful comment or question about your read-aloud? Yep. They need that and we need to make sure we are engaging their brains and helping them grow their vocabulary and higher-order thinking skills. (I promise- more about this in future posts!)

Click on the picture to get to that PA post.

To get to the sight word post, click on this picture.

To read more about Structured Literacy, click on the picture above.

Make sure you check out my next post!

To download this page with the links to these resources, click on the picture. 

I highly recommend reading Sally Shaywitz's book called Overcoming Dyslexia.


Friday, August 5, 2016

Tips for Setting up your Reading Workshop

It's that time of year again! Some of you are already back in school. I still have a month, but August always snaps me back into teacher mode.

I'm joining up with my friends in The Reading Crew for a fun link-up!

I have a few posts about how I set up my reading workshop in my first grade classroom. This one will pull some bits in but won't be the how-to set up like those were. (I will mention those posts as they come up in this post.)

One of the most important things you can do for kids is set your expectations, right? Well, knowing yourself exactly what you want out of your students is the first step. Delivering that information to your students is the next step. I do this with rubrics. Yes, I love rubrics. Mostly, I love the consistently it brings me. It sets me straight.

When you're setting up your Reading Workshop, there are three bigs things I do:
1. Guided Reading
2. Literacy Centers
3. Daily 5... sort of. It's more like "free"/choice writing and reading in my class.

You can read about how I set this up in detail HERE.

I've come up with a few tips for you. Enjoy! :)

Tip#1: Have a Guided Reading "Snapshot" 

This is one of my oldest freebies, but I've updated it since I originally made it. I call it a "snapshot" but it's really a rubric for guided reading. I thought about what I expect of my students and what I want to see. You can fill these out weekly or monthly. It's a great way to help turn guided reading into a "grade" if you need to. It's also a great communication tool for parents and for your students. If you keep track of these assessments, they can help you make goals for your students as well.

There are two options (as shown above.) One is more of a rubric style while the other is identifying specific strengths and goals. You could use both (two-sided) or just one. 

Click HERE to download this freebie. 

To recap... Benefits of this "snapshot":
  • Helps you set goals for students
  • Specifically show skills you've observed
  • Communication tool for parents
  • Provides expectations for students
  • Keep YOU on track

Tip #2 Give your expectations for center time and communicate this with parents.

Of course setting those expectations for centers is so important! Sharing these expectations with parents is also important. I've made a rubric for assessing literacy centers. These would work for any set of centers. There are a few different options, too.

Click HERE to download the literacy center rubric. 

Benefits of this "rubric":

  • Sets your expectations for centers
  • Holds students accountable
  • Communication tool for parents
About my literacy centers:
I have a whole system for literacy centers that seems elaborate, but it's really quite simple and effective once you get started. These centers are nice because you get them all ready at the beginning of the month, then you are all done! Students figure out routines and it just flows. Here's the short version of how these work:

  • Students are given a menu with all of the centers for the whole month.
  • Menus have the same four categories ALL year long but specific skills and themes change each month. 
  • Center are all compact, fitting into a folder. Four folders for each category, so four folders per folder holder (shown below.) 

You can read more about my literacy centers (with photos) HERE 
OR watch this video below for a quick introduction. 

I have literacy centers available for K, 1, and 2. 

Tip #3: Keep track of independent writing using notebook tabs and keep track of their progress/goals with a writing "snapshot."
The third piece of my Reading Workshop is Daily 5. It's actually not Daily 5 in the traditional sense though. I loved the Daily 5, but my students and I also loved my literacy centers. So... I did both. The literacy centers were activities that were created for them. Students are told what to do with centers. With the Daily 5, students get more choice. I don't do all five. In my classroom, it's basically just "free choice" writing and reading. They have the choice between reading, writing, buddy reading, and listen to reading. They also get to choose what they read and write. This means little to no prep for me. The only thing I do is set up their notebooks to help keep track of their writing. I made these tabs to organize their writing.

You can get these tabs HERE in my TPT store.

Students use these notebooks for Daily 5 (independent writing) and for writing workshop. I wanted to create an assessment that was different from the traditional writing rubric. I use writing rubrics for specific writing assignments, but I use these writing "snapshots" for their independent writing. I wanted it to focus more on skills and less on an actual score.

 You can download this free "snapshot" HERE.

I have a few posts about the Daily 5 from last year. There are more freebies if you want to get started with the traditional Daily 5. Click on the picture to go to those posts.

I hope these freebies help you to start the year off right! A few last tips to manage all this:

  • Stagger the assessments and snapshots so that you don't have to do them all at once. 
  • Keep a little calendar to make sure you are on track. 
  • Use this little calendar to help you make sure you have mini-conferences with each student to go over their progress with writing and their performance on literacy centers and guided reading. 
{Pinnable Image}

We also have an AMAZING giveaway!!

  a Rafflecopter giveaway

There are TONS of other tips for you. You don't want to miss these!

Monday, July 25, 2016

Dyslexia: Myths and Misconceptions

Hello! I'm finally writing about my most passionate topic in education: Dyslexia. There is a long story as to why and how I became so interested, but basically we ALL need to know more about it. This will be part of a series of posts about dyslexia because there is SO much to share. I thought I'd start with the myths and misconceptions because there are so many out there. In order to understand what dyslexia really is, we need to know what it is NOT. 

I hope to shed some light on this topic for you because these students ARE in your class. They were there last year and the year before that. You might not have identified them, but they are there. I think back to all of the students that I never identified because i didn't have this information. I hope to spread knowledge so we can together make  a difference in the lives of these students and maybe, someday, in the education system. (I won't go into it too much today, but our schools and teacher prep schools are seriously lacking in this area.) 

This is the most common thing that I hear, tied with the next one. Here's the truth: Dyslexics do not see things backward. Dyslexia is not a vision problem that can be solved with vision therapy. There is actually no evidence that suggests that dyslexics see things backward. There IS evidence that dyslexics have trouble processing and manipulating the sounds in words. 

Reversing letters is actually a normal part of development through 2nd grade. Many kids without dyslexia reverse letters and many people with dyslexia don't reverse their letters.
The letters b, d, p, and q are really all the same letter just flipped and turned. We see the letters as being in different positions and directions. Kids learning to read don't always see this. Direction doesn't matter with other objects in a child's life. The best example I've seen is that a chair is still a chair no matter which direction you put it. Letters change based on their direction. This can be confusing for kids who don't have that letter firmly imprinted in their brains. It is true though that children with dyslexia continue to reverse letters longer than other children.

If there is one myth I'd like to debunk, it's this one. Fact: Kids with dyslexia have average to above average intelligence. Fact. That's why as teachers we are often left scratching our heads trying to figure out why our bright students are having so much trouble learning to read. When I think of my dyslexic students, I think of bright, hardworking, and creative kids who have a specific hardship: reading and spelling.
Lack of effort?! HA! My dyslexic students work the hardest, hands down! Why? Because they have to. They are compensating both on a conscious and subconscious level (their brains are literally compensating by using another part of the brain, which is less efficient.) It is a neurobiological disorder- the problem is physically in the brain. It is NOT a result of lack of effort OR less exposure at home. Lack of exposure at home is a whole different issue that also affects reading ability but it is not a cause of dyslexia.  Parents can experience a lot of guilt when they shouldn't. Kids experience shame, when they shouldn't. A lot of that has to do with misconceptions and misunderstanding surrounding dyslexia.

Dyslexia is a lifelong learning disability that cannot be "cured." A dyslexic can learn to read with the right systematic and explicit instruction though.

New research shows that boys and girls are equally affected with dyslexia. A theory is that more boys were identified because they tend to act out when they are experiencing difficultly, whereas girls try to compensate for and hide their difficulty. 

Kids are really good at compensating. Some dyslexics may get decent grades but they are working SO hard. They are smart after all. I will be posting again soon about the signs of dyslexia.

First, I want to clarify terminology that I've been guilty of using. There is "diagnosis" because it is not a medical problem or disease. Instead, I believe it's more accurate to say "identified." Please let me know if you have other terminology that I should be using. :)

Typically, kids are identified later because they hit that "3rd grade wall" when the words get much bigger and texts longer. Their coping mechanisms don't work as well. However, we don't need to wait that long- and shouldn't! Let me be the first to throw myself under the bus. I have waited. I have said to parents and myself, "I think it will click. Let's just wait and see." Signs can be seen as early as kindergarten. You may not be able to identify if a child has dyslexia, we can identify if they are "at-risk." Dyslexics can be identified using assessments administered by trained  and experienced specialists. Trust me, the sooner a child is identified, the quicker the child can get help, and the more likely they are to experience reading success.

NOPE! It is not rare at all. In fact, 1 in 5 have dyslexia. ONE in FIVE! So, if you have a class of 20, that's 4 kids. What's tricky is that there is a huge spectrum with dyslexia. Some kids are profoundly dyslexic, while others are mildly dyslexic. Obviously the profoundly dyslexic students are easier to spot. It's the mildly dyslexic kids that tend to get overlooked. They are the ones we tend to make excuses for- lack of effort, laziness, not enough exposure, "not ready yet," etc.

Often parents and teachers might think, "My child can't be dyslexic. They can read." Dyslexics do learn to read. The key is listening to how they are reading. How accurate are they? How fluent are they? How is their spelling? How often do they self-correct? (Self-corrections are often signs of over-using context to compensate for poor phonics skills or weak orthographic processing.) 

Another mistake I've made is to just assign reading, reading, reading to my dyslexic students with the hope that the more they practice, the better they will get. Research shows us that dyslexic students need proper instruction to improve their reading skills. We can't just ask them to read more for homework and hope that will solve it. Silent reading for dyslexics can lead to more guessing, and errors left uncorrected. This will not help his reading development. Just to be clear, these kids DO need to be reading, but it should be the right texts with the right instruction. More reading does make us better readers, just not on it's own. :) Another  important note that I will be bringing up in another post more in depth.  Dyslexic kids DO need intervention at their reading level BUT they also need exposure to texts at their intelligence and maturity level. This means they need to be read aloud to and have access to audio books- the same books that their peers are reading. We still want to challenge these students. They are bright, curious, and ready to learn! Giving them access to texts at their intelligence level allows them to grow their vocabulary and comprehension skills, not to mention their general knowledge. A mistake I've made is only giving kids books at their level. We need to make sure we are doing both.  

Actually there is a ton of research out there! Thanks to fMRI's, there are actual pictures of the brain, showing which areas of the brain are activated while reading. There is a distinct difference between activity in a dyslexic's brain and a non-dyslexic reader. My next blog post will talk about the brain and reading. 

The little comic below should answer this one: 

Accommodations are so important for our dyslexic learners. As I mentioned, they are bright and deserve to have access to the same information and learning opportunities. As teachers, we still want to remediate to teach these kids to read, but we also need to accommodate in the meantime to make sure they are able to grow as a learner in other areas.

I hope this post was informative and helpful. I'll be posted again soon!